Both Freud and Krafft-Ebing were psychiatrists; their observations on sadism and masochism were dependent on psychiatric patients, and their models were built on the assumption of psychopathology. They are three separate items, that are normally associated together. Nichols compiled some common clinical issues: Retrieved 12 January Text of ruling online at:
Some individuals report having had them before puberty, while others do not discover them until well into adulthood.
BDSM is now used as a catch-all phrase covering a wide range of activities, forms of interpersonal relationshipsand distinct subcultures. Retrieved 12 January InSigmund Freud described sadism and masochism in his Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie "Three papers on Sexual Theory" as stemming from aberrant psychological development from early childhood. This audio file was created from a revision of the article " BDSM " datedand does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. At one end of the spectrum are those who are indifferent to, or even reject physical stimulation. Section F65 of the current revision, ICDindicates that "mild degrees of sadomasochistic stimulation are commonly used to enhance otherwise normal sexual activity". Therefore, therapists need to facilitate couple's counselling and disclosure.